The 31-year-old Dominican slugger, a two-time Major League Baseball All-Star outfielder, and his wife had three children.
"I go through the pain of making public the unfortunate death of my wife, Noelia, due to a heart attack," Marte posted on Twitter. "It is a moment of great sorrow."
Marte made his MLB debut in 2012 with the Pittsburgh Pirates and played there until being traded to the Diamondbacks this past January.
"We are deeply saddened to learn of the tragic passing of Noelia Marte," the Diamondbacks said in a statement. "Starling and his family are part of the D-backs' family and we will do all we can to support him and their children during this incredibly difficult time."
Marte batted .287 with 108 home runs and 420 runs batted in with 239 stolen bases in eight seasons with Pittsburgh, which reached the playoffs from 2013-2015 with Marte's help for the first time since 1992.
"The entire Pirates family extend our deepest condolences to Starling Marte and family during this terrible time," a team statement said. "Our hearts are truly saddened by this news."