Shazier, 25, was carted from the field on Monday after a collision with Bengals wide receiver Josh Malone.
The Steelers linebacker initially appeared unable to move his legs and lower body following the incident.
"(University of Pittsburgh Medical Center) neurosurgeons and Pittsburgh Steelers team physicians Drs. David Okonkwo and Joseph Maroon performed spinal stabilization surgery on Ryan Shazier to address his spinal injury," the Steelers' said in a statement on Thursday.
There was no further information about Shazier's condition or whether he is expected to make a recovery.
The NFL Network reported that the surgery would require several months of recovery and rehabilitation.
Pittsburgh had initially said Shazier would not require surgery.
The player was transferred from University of Cincinnati Medical Center to the Pittsburgh hospital on Wednesday.