The team published glimpses of the new RS20 online and during a Paris event with its management and drivers Daniel Ricciardo and Esteban Ocon.
Its 3D renders showed only parts of the car in a completely black livery, which is understood to be only for pre-season testing.
Renault is hoping to bounce back from a disappointing 2019 season during which it dropped down to fifth in the constructors' championship, scoring fewer points than in 2018.
Team boss Cyril Abiteboul insisted the goal for 2020 was to regain fourth position behind the top teams.
"Taking back fourth position in the constructors’ championship remains the objective over a season that will be more hotly-contested than ever," he said.
"2020 is also a pivotal year that marks the end of one cycle and the preparatory phase of another.
"This year must see us setting the best possible course for the major regulation changes of 2021. The organisational changes made in the second half of 2019 are with this firmly in mind.
Frenchman Ocon joins Ricciardo in the team's line-up - replacing Nico Hulkenberg - after spending a year on the sidelines in 2019.
Chinese F2 driver Guanyu Zhou was announced as the team's test driver for 2020.
Renault's new car will hit the track at Barcelona when pre-season testing begins next week.