The winger, who has been attached to United since he was a seven-year-old, made his mark in the first team under former manager Louis van Gaal last season.
With the club since the age of seven, the winger established himself in the first-team under van Gaal last season and scored the winning goal in United's 2-1 FA Cup final win over Crystal Palace at Wembley.
The 24-year-old Lingard has so far won four England caps and his new contract was announced by United ahead of his current deal expiring at the end of next season.
His new contract means he is set to stay with United until June 2021 with the option to extend for another year.
"Manchester United has always been a big part of my life," Lingard, now playing under manager Jose Mourinho, said in a club statement.
"I have been with the club since the age of seven and I feel great pride every time I pull the shirt on. To have scored in two cup finals for my boyhood club were immensely proud moments for me and my family.
"As a team, we have already won a major trophy this season (the League Cup) and I look forward to helping us win many more under this great manager.
"I would like to say a special thank you to the fans for the great support they have always given me and the team," added Lingard, whose new deal is reported to be worth £100,000 ($124,693, 117,148 euros) a week.
"Jesse has been with the club since the age of seven," said Mourinho. "He has good intelligence which, when combined with his energy and ability, makes for a player with a great future ahead of him.
"Jesse is a popular member of the squad and I am delighted he has signed a new contract."