The team said Anthony had successful surgery to debride his left knee and repair the patella tendon.
Anthony had battled knee trouble throughout much of this season, missing 13 of the Knicks' 53 games before the All-Star break.
The 2012-13 NBA scoring champion was expected to need four to six months of recovery time.
Anthony ended his campaign only three days after scoring 14 points on 6-of-20 shooting over 30 minutes in Sunday's NBA All-Star Game, played on the Knicks' Madison Square Garden home court.
Anthony, a native New Yorker, wanted to hang on to play in the mid-season exhibition in front of home fans.
However, the club's decision to shut him down wasn't a surprise. They had the worst record in the NBA at 10-43 at the All-Star break.
Regular-season play was due to resume on Thursday, with the Knicks already ensured of a losing season.