Scotsman Murray, who is on the comeback trail after career-saving hip surgery, reached the quarter-finals of the China Open where he lost to eventual winner Dominic Thiem.
The run lifted the 32-year-old 214 places from 503 in the world to 289.
He can climb into the top 250 if he beats Juan Ignacio Londero later on Monday in the first round of the Shanghai Masters where Murray is a three-time champion.
Djokovic's win in Tokyo at the weekend means the Serb is at number one for the 271st week of his career, one more than Ivan Lendl and trailing only Roger Federer (310) and Pete Sampras (286).
Djokovic heads to Shanghai as defending champion while Nadal, his closest pursuer 1,140 points behind, has had to pull out with a wrist injury he picked up during last month's Laver Cup.
Thiem's victory over Stefanos Tsitsipas in Beijing sees the Austrian close to just 50 points behind the Russian Daniil Medvedev.
ATP Rankings as of October 7:
1. Novak Djokovic (SRB) 10,365 pts
2. Rafael Nadal (ESP) 9,225
3. Roger Federer (SUI) 7,130
4. Daniil Medvedev (RUS) 4,965
5. Dominic Thiem (AUT) 4,915
6. Alexander Zverev (GER) 4,185
7. Stefanos Tsitsipas (GRE) 3,630
8. Kei Nishikori (JPN) 3,040
9. Karen Khachanov (RUS) 2,945
10. Roberto Bautista (ESP) 2,575
11. Gael Monfils (FRA) 2,375
12. Fabio Fognini (ITA) 2,280
13. Matteo Berrettini (ITA) 2,221
14. David Goffin (BEL) 2,190 (+1)
15. Borna Coric (CRO) 2,130 (-1)
16. Diego Schwartzman (ARG) 1,995
17. John Isner (USA) 1,895 (+2)
18. Kevin Anderson (RSA) 1,780
19. Felix Auger-Aliassime (CAN) 1,719 (+1)
20. Stan Wawrinka (SUI) 1,670 (+1)