Emma Hayes’ side were unbeaten as they topped Group D and will travel to the Netherlands to face Ajax on March 19 or 20.
The Blues will then host the Dutch champions, who were unseeded after finishing as runners-up in Group C, the following week.
If Chelsea progress, they are likely to face a semi-final rematch with Barcelona, who face Norwegian side Brann in the quarter-finals.
Barcelona defeated Chelsea over two legs on their way to reclaiming the Women’s Champions League last season, while Barcelona also thrashed Chelsea 4-0 in the 2021 final.
That remains the furthest the Blues have got in Europe, and Chelsea are now aiming to end on a high with Hayes leaving the club at the end of the season to take charge of the United States.
In the other half of the draw, eight-time winners Lyon will play Benfica while Paris Saint-Germain face Hacken.
Chelsea topped Group D ahead of Hacken, Paris FC and Real Madrid and the Blues are also currently leading the Women’s Super League title race.