The move on Thursday comes a month after the Bills signed the sixth-year player just before they opened training camp.
Defensive coordinator Leslie Frazier characterized Robinson's decision as personal, adding he has a lot of respect for him as a person and player.
The 29-year-old Robinson spent the previous two seasons with the New York Giants. He was limited to playing six games last year before sustaining a season-ending quadriceps injury.
He spent his first four seasons with Washington after being selected in the fourth round of the 2012 draft. He missed all of 2013 with a torn pectoral muscle.
Overall, Robinson had two interceptions and 1+ sacks in 58 career games, including 30 starts.
The Bills also released defensive tackle Tenny Palepoi. This comes after they signed Palepoi on Sunday.
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