The Italian champions needed just a goal to book their place in the final on home turf but were frustrated by a resolute Benfica defense, with Enzo Perez's red card for two bookings not enough to change their fortunes.
Dani Osvaldo had the ball in the net in the final 10 minutes but the goal was correctly ruled out for offside. Jorge Jesus' men, beaten finalists against Chelsea last year, were able to shut out Juve to book their place in the final, which will be held at the same venue on May 14.
Maxi Pereira was needed to shrug Paul Pogba off the ball inside the area after seven minutes, prior to Jan Oblak tipping a strike from Pirlo over the crossbar.
Oblak had returned to Benfica's team in place of Artur and the goalkeeper was given a scare by Vidal soon after. The Chilean, who shook off a knee injury to make Juventus' starting lineup, came close to opening the scoring, only for his lobbed effort to nestle on the roof of the net.
Vidal then threatened with two headers, the second of which was cleared off the line by Luisao as Benfica retained its slender advantage heading into the interval.
Rodrigo fired over the first effort of the second half for the visitors before Pirlo's free kick forced Oblak into another smart save.
What could have been the turning point came 67 minutes in when Perez was shown a second yellow card for a late challenge on Vidal, yet Benfica held firm.
Stephan Lichtsteiner's control let him down when he evaded the Benfica back line and Osvaldo looked to have scored, only for the strike to be ruled out for offside following Pogba's cut-back, before tempers flared on the touchlines.
Unused Juve substitute Vucinic and Lazar Markovic, who had just been taken off by Benfica, were both sent off following a scuffle in the dugout.
Markovic and Perez are therefore set to miss the final against Sevilla, while Eduardo Salvio will also be suspended after picking up a harsh late booking for hand ball.
Benfica also lost defender Ezequiel Garay late on after he was caught in the head accidentally by a falling Pogba's boot, but the Portuguese champions held firm to seal their third cup final of the season and a shot at redemption after last year's disappointment in Amsterdam.