The 31-year-old skippered Les Bleus at the 2010 World Cup in South Africa but was stripped of the armband after leading a player protest following Nicolas Anelka's dispute with then-coach Raymond Domenech.
Evra was hit with a five-match international ban after the tournament but returned to the national team under Laurent Blanc and has continued to participate in qualification for the next World Cup in Brazil.
"I don't have any problems with Evra but he knows he won't be captain under me and he knows why," Deschamps told French radio station RMC.
Evra has recently won his first-team spot back, starting all of France’s World Cup qualifiers while Arsenal left back Kieran Gibbs was out injured.
Tottenham goalkeeper Hugo Lloris is the current captain of the one-time world champion.