The Owls (5-2) never trailed and opened up an 18-point lead at 30-12 midway through the first half.
The Rockets (6-2) got to 36-27 at halftime, then scored the first four points of the second half before Temple took control for good.
Juan Fernandez added 13 points for the Owls, who used runs of 11-2 and 11-0 to pull away in the second half.
Temple shot 52.8 percent from the field (28 of 53) and hit 11 of 24 3-pointers, but had 22 turnovers times. Leading scorer Ramone Moore (17.8 points per game) was held under double figures for the first time this season with eight points.
Rian Pearson’s 16 led Toledo, which shot 39.7 percent (23 of 58).